Working Papers

“Public School Funding Cut and Private School Enrollment: Evidence from the Great Recession” (Job Market Paper) [draft]


This paper asks whether funding for public schools affects parents’ decision to send their children to private schools. In the wake of the Great Recession, funding for public K-12 education fell precipitously in the United States and stayed low for several years. Critically, states with greater historical reliance on state appropriations (rather than local or federal appropriations) and states with no income tax experienced larger cuts. These two features were set decades before the Great Recession, changed little over time, and do not predict other impacts of the Recession, such as unemployment, providing plausibly exogenous sources for variation in public school funding. I combine these two sources with the timing of the Great Recession in an event study framework to instrument for local public school funding. I find that students exposed to a $1,000 (9.0 percent) decrease in per-pupil funding are more likely to enroll in private schools by 0.48 to 0.59 percentage points (4.5 to 5.6 percent). I show further that the effect is strongest among high socioeconomic status students living in disadvantaged areas. These findings suggest that reductions in public school resources lead to greater inequality in education through school choice.

“Does Facility-Based Delivery Save Lives? Evidence from Rwanda” [draft upon request]


Low access to public health services is one reason for high mortality in developing countries. In 2006, Rwanda initiated extensive health care policies to improve access to health services including free facility-based child delivery and universal health insurance. This paper studies the effect of this health reform on facility-based delivery and general facility use, and childhood mortality. To identify the causal effect, I utilize the geographical variation of facility-based child delivery prior to 2006 in a difference-in-difference framework. My estimates suggest that the health reform increased facility-based delivery by 17-19 percentage points. The reform is also associate with more frequent use of various health services such as family plans, prenatal care, HIV tests, modern contraception, and visiting facilities due to light symptoms. Next, I examine whether the health reform reduced childhood mortality rates. The reform has a substantial effect on child mortality and infant mortality, 25 and 12 reductions per 1,000 live births, respectively. However, the overall reduction in neonatal mortality is not statistically significant despite a large increase in facility-based delivery. Based on the timing of the effect on mortality, I suggest that the effect is coming from more frequent use of health facilities before and after birth.

“Outsource to India: the Impact of Service Outsourcing on the Labor Market in the U.S.” [draft upon request]


Outsourcing is a well-documented practice and has been proved to have a far-reaching impact on employment in manufacturing industries. Service outsourcing, however, is relatively understudied despite its growing importance in the economy. This paper is one of the few papers studying the effect of service outsourcing on the labor market in the U.S. I particularly focus on India, one of the most popular destination countries with its large college-educated population and specialization in IT and business outsourcing industries. In this paper, I examine whether the increase in service outsourcing to India has reduced the employment of the occupations that are relevant to outsourcing. I instrument for the growth of service import from India exploiting the change in Indian import in European countries. The occupation level analysis gives a mixed result. An increase in import penetration decreases the total employment from 2000 to 2007, however, this effect attenuates in the later period of 2007 to 2017. This is counter-intuitive because the increase in service imports is much greater in the later period. Real wages also increase in the first period only.

“The Socioeconomic Gradient in the Inheritance of Longevity: A Study of American Genealogies”, (with Sok Chul Hong)

Working in Progress

“Non-native Peer Impact on Long-term Outcomes: Evidence from Texas”

“H-1B Visa and Impact on Native-born Workers”